Aluminum oxide Lewis structure
Lewis Structures of Atoms
- The chemical symbol for the atom is surrounded by a number of dots corresponding to the number of valence electrons.
Lewis Structures for Ions of Elements
- The chemical symbol for the element is surrounded by the number of valence electrons present in the ion.
The whole structure is then placed within square brackets, with a superscript to indicate the charge on the ion.
- Atoms will gain or lose electrons in order to achieve a stable, Noble Gas (Group 18), electronic configuration.
- Negative ions (anions) are formed when an atom gains electrons.
- Positive ions (cations) are formed when an atom loses electrons.
Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds
- The overall charge on the compound must equal zero, that is, the number of electrons lost by one atom must equal the number of electrons gained by the other atom.
- The Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) of each ion is used to construct the Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) for the ionic compound.
Lithium fluoride, LiF
- Lithium atom loses one electron to form the cation Li+
- Fluorine atom gains one electron to form the anion F-
- Lithium fluoride compound can be represented asLi+ OR
Lithium oxide, Li2O
Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds
hydrogen fluoride, HF
- In a covalent compound, electrons are shared between atoms to form a covalent bond in order that each atom in the compound has a share in the number of electrons required to provide a stable, Noble Gas, electronic configuration.
- Electrons in the Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) are paired to show the bonding pair of electrons.
- Often the shared pair of electrons forming the covalent bond is circled
- Sometimes the bond itself is shown (-), these structures can be referred to as valence structures.
oxygen molecule, O2
- Each oxygen will share 2 of its valence electrons in order to form 2 bonding pairs of electrons (a double covalent bond) so that each oxygen will have a share in 8 valence electrons (electronic configuration of neon).
- Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) for the oxygen molecule OR
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