Definition of oxidation reaction

Is a naturally occurring process around organic laboratory and and also some other biological process in living matter and nature. An organic compound commonly is said to be “reduced” if reaction leads to an increase in its hydrogen content or a decrease in its oxygen content. The compound would be “oxidized” if the reverse change took place:

This is a very unsatisfactory definition because many oxidation-reduction or redox reactions do not involve changes in hydrogen or oxygen content, as the following example illustrates:

Redox reactions or oxidation-reduction of organic compounds are better defined in terms of the concept of electron transfer. Thus an atom is said to be oxidized if, as the result of a reaction, it experiences a net loss of electrons; and is reduced if it experiences a net gain of electrons. This simple definition can be used to identify oxidation-reduction of organic compounds at carbon in terms of a scale of oxidation states for carbon based on the electronegativities of the atoms attached to carbon. The idea is to find out whether in a given reaction carbon becomes more, or less, electron-rich. We will use the following somewhat arbitrary rules:

1. Elementary carbon is assigned the zero oxidation state.

2. The oxidation state of any chemically bonded carbon may be assigned by adding —1 for each more electropositive atom and +1 for each more electronegative atom, and 0 for each carbon atom bonded directly to the carbon of interest (see Figure 10-11 for the Pauling electronegativity scale). That is,

—1 for electropositive atoms, H, B, Na, Li, Mg

+ 1 for electronegative atoms, halogens, O, N, S 0 for carbon.

The rationale for this mode of operation can be seen if we look more closely at the example of CH3Cl + Mg—–> CH3—Mg—Cl. Chlorine is more electronegative than either carbon or magnesium. Carbon is more electronegative than magnesium. Thus CH3Cl is written properly with a polar bond as

CH3 —–Cl, whereas the C-Mg bond is oppositely polarized, CH3—–Mg. If all of the bonds were ionized completely, we could write

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