Substrate level vs. Oxidative Phosphorylation

We use the term oxidative phosphorylation to describe how 2 molecules of FADH2 and NADH (produced in the Citric Acid cycle) are used to make ATP. We use the term “oxidative” because oxygen accepts an electron while the gradient made by the movement of electrons powers the creation ATP.

Electron Transport Chain

But why do we even need oxygen?

Can’t the electrons just float around the cell? Well they actually do sometimes. This is known as electron leakage. Normally the electrons will bind with oxygen and hydrogen to form stable molecules of water. If electrons leak from the transport chain before they reach complex IV they can form superoxides.

Superoxides are part of a larger group of reactive oxygen species(ROS) that are unstable. To stabilize themselves they will strip the valence electrons from the outer shell of nearby molecules. If this occurs on DNA molecules it can lead to permanent mutations that will ultimately cause the cell to undergo apoptosis.

An even worse case scenario is the formation of a cancerous cell. The cell does have a mechanism to deal with this. The enzyme superoxide dismutase can pick up these leaked electrons.

Substrate-level Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation of the Electron Transport Chain(ETC) is in contrast to ATP made during glycolysis which is known as substrate-level phosphorylation. We use the term substrate level phosphorylation because ATP formation in glycolysis is powered by the addition/removal of phosphate groups (phosphorylation) to molecules of glucose (the substrate). Hence the term substrate-level phosphorylation.

An example of substrate level phosphorylation that occurs in glycolysis is the production of ATP when 1, 3 bisphophoglycerate is converted into 3-phosphoglycerate. The phosphate is removed directly from the substrate( 1, 3 bisphophoglycerate) and joined with ADP to make ATP. This process can occur in conditions where no oxygen in present.

Read electro-mechanical engineering blog
You might also like
Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmosis
Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmosis
OXPHOS - Oxidative Phosphorylation App now available .99c
OXPHOS - Oxidative Phosphorylation App now available .99c
ATP from Substrate Phosphorylation & Oxidative Phosphorylation
ATP from Substrate Phosphorylation & Oxidative Phosphorylation
Turtle Wax Turtle Wax T-280RA Chrome Polish & Rust Remover - 12 oz.
Automotive Parts and Accessories (Turtle Wax)
  • Transforms rusty, tarnished chrome to its original gleaming luster
  • Works great on chrome bumpers, wheels and accessories
  • Leaves a protective coating to prevent future oxidation
  • Can be used with cotton, microfiber or foam pads
  • Easy to use
MOTHERS Mothers 07100 California Gold Pure Polish (Ultimate Wax System, Step 1) - 16 oz.
Automotive Parts and Accessories (MOTHERS)
  • Smoothes edges of larger imperfections and removes small scratches for a new look
  • Use once or twice a year to maintain your vehicle s paint and look
  • Preps paint for waxing for a smoother look and cleaner surface
  • Regular use provides a long lasting benefit to your vehicle
Substrate-level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Substrate-level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Substrate level vs. Oxidative Phosphorylation
Substrate level vs. Oxidative Phosphorylation
oxidative phosphorylation
oxidative phosphorylation
Star brite Star brite Rust Stain Remover
Sports (Star brite)
  • Easy to use spray on formula
  • No rubbing or scrubbing required
  • Safe for use on fiberglass, metal and painted surfaces
  • Removes rust drip stains and sprinkler rust deposits
Star brite Star brite Ultimate Aluminum Polish with PTEF, 16 oz.
Sports (Star brite)
  • FORMULATED FOR USE ON PONTOON BOATS, JON BOATS AND CANOES
  • Adds A Deep Shine In Minutes, Removes Light Oxidation; Helps Preserve Restored Finishes
  • Protective Polymers Repel Stains & UV Rays
  • Maintains the beauty of new and restored aluminum surfaces; lasts longer than other polishes or waxes
  • PTEF polymers bond to the treated surface to repel stains and UV rays that cause aluminum to lose its shine
Glass Polish Metal Polishing Kit, Stainless Steel Restoration, Removes Rust, Abrasions, Oxidation, Water Stains, Discoloration, DIY Repair used with electric drill
Automotive Parts and Accessories (Glass Polish)
  • This kit is designed to be used with electric drill at 1rpm
  • Easy to use with a little effort required to achieve a high quality results,
  • Removes Rust, abrasions, water stain, oxidation,
  • Restore, shine and protect stainless steel and any other metal surfaces.
  • Super high quality finish with a protective nano coating to prevent oxidation and rusting.
Related Posts