Polyethylene oxide properties
The purpose of this review article is to describe the properties and applications of polyethylene oxide. Polyethylene oxide is a biocompatible polymer, which is marketed as "POLYOX TM". It is a non-ionic, water soluble resin, with good lubricating, binding and film forming properties. POLYOX TM retards the release rate of drug/s and hence are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations like controlled release dosage forms, hot-melt technology and mucoadhesive dosage forms. Depending on its molecular weight, various grades of POLYOX(tm)are available in market. Drug release mechanisms from dosage forms are based on swelling and erosion properties of the polymer. POLYOX TM plays a vital role in design of a novel drug delivery system for both highly and poorly soluble drug.
Keywords: Polymers, Polyethylene oxide, controlled drug delivery, POLYOX(tm), PEO
Since past few decades, pharmaceutical companies are booming ahead with innovations in formulation, research and development. These innovations aim at the quality and safety of the product, without compromising patient compliance. Scientists are working on novel drug delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, nano-technology, magnetic delivery systems, and sonophoresis, but in such type of dosage forms its a challenge for research scientists and industrialists, to transfer pilot scale to production batches. So alternatively, controlled drug delivery systems, sustained delivery systems, orally disintegrating system, immediate release dosage forms etc., are used. The most important factor in all these release retarding dosage form is the use of polymers. Hence polymers like POLYOX(tm) is used in novel drug delivery systems [19 ] .
1.1 Controlled drug delivery (CDD) :
Release of drug from a CDD system proceeds at a kinetically predictable and reproducible rate. It produces a constant steady-state plasma level for prolonged duration. It can be defined as "Release of drug at a predetermined rate and/or to a location according to needs of body and disease rates for a definite time period". The release mechanism in controlled drug delivery system is mainly by reservoir or matrix systems. The three major types of materials used in there preparation of devices are insoluble plastics, hydrophilic polymers and fatty compounds. Plastic materials mainly include methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Hydrophilic polymers include methyl cellulose (MC), hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol etc. Fatty compounds include carnauba wax, glyceryl tristearate. In all types of novel drug delivery systems polymers play a significant role.
Few mechanisms involved in controlled release of drug are: diffusion controlled system; solvent activated system; chemically controlled system; and magnetically controlled system. Polymers, used in these drug delivery systems, can be mainly classified based on polymer-water interaction like hydrophobic polymers, hydrophilic polymers, water soluble polymers and hydrogels.
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